Andreas "Andy" Schuler- Lying about Dr. Denton
Andy Schuler is a big fat liar. He lied about understanding nested hierarchies and when forced into his corner he lied about Dr. Denton. Well he was forced to lie about Denton because Denton refuted the claim that evolution predicts a nested hierarchy.
On page 276, Denton states that comparable distances in Cytochrome C similarities between proteins from fishes, frogs, reptiles and mammals demonstrates that fishes are unlikely to be ancestors of frogs (and those ancestors of reptiles and those ancestors of mammals). Which relies on the idiotic misconception that extant fishes are ancestors of extant mammals instead of cousins who diverged from common ancestors for the EXACT SAME amount of time. This misconception would be excusable for a teenager, it isn´t excusable for someone who wants to write a book about the subject, it´s as lazy and moronic as writing a book about Islam while believing that Islam teaches that Jesus was God and not bothering to read up even the most elementary of sources to fact check your claims.So I re-read chapter 12 and guess what? Dr Denton never made the claim that Andy posted! What Denton said, and was supported by evolutionary biologists, is that the alleged living fossils should have protein sequences very close to their ancestral state, ie their ancestors that lived millions of years ago. However when checked the living fossils'molecules are as derived as any other extant organism. That means there isn't any evolutionary relationships that can be gleaned from the molecular data.
Contemporary organisms that look much like ancient ancestral organisms probably contain a majority of polypeptide chains that resemble quite closely those of the ancient organisms. In other words, certain animals said to be "living fossils", such as the cockroach, the horseshoe crab, the shark and among mammals, the lemur, probably manufacture a great many polypeptide molecules that differ only slightly from those manufactured by their ancestors millions of years ago.- Zuckerkandl, E, (1965), "The Evolution of Haemoglobin", Scientific American, 213(5): 110-18 , see p111
For if the ancient representatives of groups such as amphibia, lungfish, cyclostomes, and reptiles manufactured proteins similar to those manufactured by their living relatives today, and if, therefore, the isolation of the main divisions of nature was just the same in the past as it is today, if for example ancient lungfish and ancient amphibia were just as separate from each other as their present day descendants are, then the whole concept of evolution collapses." Denton, page 291
And that makes sense. However that is not what we observe. The "living fossils" have the same degree of difference as all other animal groups. There aren't any intermediates. All organisms are just as derived as the other. That means we cannot see any evolutionary relationships, just alleged sister groups. Evolutionary relationships have to be assumed as they are not observed by the data.