Intelligent Reasoning

Promoting, advancing and defending Intelligent Design via data, logic and Intelligent Reasoning and exposing the alleged theory of evolution as the nonsense it is. I also educate evotards about ID and the alleged theory of evolution one tard at a time and sometimes in groups

Saturday, October 14, 2017

The Following is NOT a Nested Hierarchy- Allan Miller is an Idiot

Allan Miller thinks the following diagram is a nested hierarchy:- although it isn't his fault the site is wrong- Nested Hierarchy?

Look at the diagram closely. Every node is a hypothetical ancestral POPULATION. And ancestral populations do not consist of nor do they contain the daughter populations.


The use of hierarchies as organizational models in systematics

The whole paper is useful but for this argument start on the bottom of page 9- HENNIG’S USE OF HIERARCHIES. UC Berkley, and all the other evos are making the same mistake as Henning did. But hey, it's only been corrected for decades so I can understand why they haven't caught on:
Hennig (1966: 70–72) presented in his fig. 18 (my Fig. 3, with parts of the figure labelled a and b instead of I and II) two different graphic representations of a hierarchic system that he regarded as corresponding exactly to one another. Figure 3a is a modified Venn diagram that depicts a nested hierarchy. As mentioned above, a fully nested hierarchy displays the property of summativity. This model constitutes an important special case because the organizational criterion is containment (Allen &Hoekstra,1984).Entities at a higher level of organization contain, or are composed of, entities at the next lower level of organization. In this case, the whole is the sum of the parts. Hierarchies that employ organizational criteria other than containment may be referred to as non-nested, and these do not display summativity (Allen & Hoekstra, 1984). Figure 3b is an arrow diagram that represents species begetting species. This could be interpreted as a linear representation of history (a directed, non-reticulate network), or, as Hennig intended, as a non-nested hierarchy with ancestor-descendant relationship as the organizational criterion.
Contrary to Hennig’s statement (1966: 70), a and b in Figure 3 do not correspond exactly, a point made earlier by Simpson (1961: 62–63) using virtually identical diagrams (his fig. 3A, C). These two models differ because life, as an evolving system, is innovative and generative. In Figure 3b, ‘stem species’ 1 (for convenience, Species 1) is the ancestor of Species 2 and Species 5, which are in turn ancestors to their descendants. In Figure 3a, the numbers associated with Species 1 through 5 indicate the monophyletic groups of terminal species derived from various ancestral species. Although Species 1 may have given rise to the terminal species, the ancestral Species 1 is clearly not the same as the set of (or not equal to the sum of) the terminal species.  


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